The Science

How and Where the Body Makes Testosterone

Testosterone is a steroid hormone, synthesized naturally in both males and females. In males, testosterone is synthesized primarily in the Leydig cells of the testes, while in females it is made in the thecal cells of the ovary. The hormone can also be made, in lesser amounts, in the adrenal gland. Although muscular activity is known to boost testosterone production, the molecule is not actually made in the muscles themselves.

Testosterone synthesis and degradation is regulated by other hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in males. In short, in men, the brain directs the production of luteinizing hormone (LH), which directly controls the abundance of Leydig cells and their rate of testosterone synthesis. LH levels in turn are controlled by gonadotropin-releasing hormone, released by the hypothalamus. In the testes, LH stimulates enzymes that speed up the biochemical synthesis of testosterone per se. If the body senses that there is enough––or too much––testosterone, then the brain and the pituitary gland will stop making the signals that are needed for testosterone production in the sex organs.

The biochemical synthesis of testosterone ultimately starts with cholesterol. This molecule is converted into something known as dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA. At this point there are actually several ways to make testosterone, but in human males, the most common next step is that DHEA is converted into the direct precursor of testosterone, androstenedione. In the testes (or the ovaries in women), androstenedione, provided there is enough positive stimulation by LH, is made into testosterone.

The Roles That Testosterone Plays

Once made, testosterone enters the blood stream and plays key roles in myriad physiological functions, not only sexual activities but also in several metabolic processes including bone growth and neurological transmissions. Testosterone is one type of a general class of molecules called androgens. These exert their influence on the body by binding to the surfaces of target cells and stimulating responses inside the cells. For bone cells, for example, the binding of testosterone can stimulate ossification, which is the process of laying down new bone material. For nerve cells, a derivative of testosterone can bind to the GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor, spurring the action of this important neurotransmitter.

Of course, testosterone plays an important role in sexual determination and sexual function. In the former case, during fetal development, the level of testosterone helps facilitate the creation of the cells of the testes, leading to male traits. In the latter case testosterone is a primary factor in one’s libido and erectile function. Although the specific mechanism of these actions are not completely understood, both are most likely mediated through androgen receptor binding of testosterone or its derivatives, as is the case for bone growth and neural response.

The Ingredients

KSM-66 Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha root (Withania somnifera) has long been known to stimulate testosterone production in males. This medicinal plant has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for over 6,000 years. Traditional medics in India used, and continue to use, Ashwagandha to treat low sperm count. Interestingly, one study that documented that Ashwagandha can enhance sperm count (by about 1.5-fold) and sperm motility (by about a 50% increase), also noted that testosterone levels went up in younger men (22–44 years old) by as much as 17% [1]. In this study, KSM-66 Ashwagandha was used, a formulation that ensured purity and a high content of withanolide glycosides, thought to be the active ingredient in Ashwagandha.

Another study focused on overweight males from 40–70 years old [2]. In that double-blind investigation, it was observed that ingesting about 20 mg of withanolide glycosides a day over eight weeks raised serum testosterone levels by 15%. This value was not only consistent with that in the first report (17%) but was statistically significant when compared to the placebo group. The authors of this 2013 analysis concluded with this statement, “The most consistent positive finding of the present study was that decreased fertility in males was ameliorated by Ashwagandha root extract as evidenced by an increase in sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and motile sperm count and an increase in the serum levels of testosterone.” [2]

Testofen Fenugreek

Fenugreek, an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, has also been used in traditional medicine in India and other parts of the world. It has been attributed to several benefits when used with care, including an ability to enhance meaningful testosterone levels. In a double-blind clinical trial, scientists found that one particular formulation of fenugreek called Testofen® did raise T levels and improved male sexual function [3]. In this 2015 trial, participants (120 healthy men between 43 and 70) took seed extracts at 600 mg per day over a 12-week period, and their benefits in these respects were found to be statistically significant compared to the placebo group.

Other positive outcomes of fenugreek supplementation have been advanced, such as a treatment for diabetes, high cholesterol, menstrual cramps, and obesity, but the scientific evidence for these benefits is not as well established as that for testosterone. Fenugreek is also used with the goal of enhancing energy and increasing muscle strength/mass, and to generally improve one’s overall quality of life. In establishing a basis for these benefits, typically daily supplementation at a rate of 300–600 mg has been used.


Tribulus terrestris is a dicotyledonous herbal plant in the family Zygophyllaceae. Extracts of this plant are well documented to promote health gains such as athletic performance, tissue damage repair, aphrodisiac effects, and erectile dysfunction (ED). Of interest is that the data seems to indicate that the means by which these benefits are derived is not an increase in testosterone, but through some other mechanism.

One group of scientists examined a large number of investigations [4] and concluded that Tribulus may impart its effect through the release of nitric oxide (NO), a chemical that relaxes smooth muscle and is thus critical for blood flow to the tissues. Another study, done in 2017 on 180 men between 18–65 years old having mild or moderate ED, examined how well Bulgarian Tribulus affected their sexual health [5]. Here, roughly 125 mg of Tribulus was administered orally in a double-blind format. After 12 weeks, the results were clear that there were no negative side effects, but there was a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in four measures: sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, orgasm function, and overall satisfaction. A third study focused on trained athletes. In this investigation, a Chinese team administered Tribulus to male boxers over 11 weeks during high-intensity training [6]. They concluded that Tribulus did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone but that raised levels of an insulin growth factor binding protein significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted the anaerobic performance of the boxers.


Eurycoma longifolia (longjack, also called tongkat ali or Malaysian ginseng) is a popular traditional herbal medicine, and is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to southeast Asia. The energy boost that one gets after taking longjack could be a result of a number of different chemical effects, and a testosterone boost certainly could be among these.

Scientists have performed several controlled studies on the influence of tongkat ali on health, particularly on its putative anti-aging properties for men. The consensus from these reports is that Eurycoma longifolia extracts have a clear benefit for those seeking to experience heightened levels of testosterone, improved muscle strength, and sexual performance. Considering the first of these, one study found that while the levels of the free testosterone increased significantly after a two-week trial with 600 mg of Eurycoma longifolia extract, the mechanism was through adrenal production rather than in the testes [7]. Similarly, another study found significant boosts in testosterone in senior men, although not in women after ingesting 400 mg per day of longjack extract for 5 weeks [8]. Naturally, it is of interest to see how well longjack works in terms of direct sexual function, not only in testosterone levels. Thus, a recent (2021) study out of Brazil examined the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on ED [9]. This 6-month randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled survey discovered that 200 mg of the herb significantly improved the erectile function of men about 50 years old, but that the effect was far more demonstrable when coordinated with physical training.


Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a flavonoid compound found in green tea. This substance, sometimes called Teavigo, is widely believed to stimulate fat metabolism and provide a boost to one’s overall energy level. A broad survey of the literature confirmed the ability of EGCG to promote fat oxidation and energy expenditure levels [10].

One study in particular revealed the benefits of ECGC for overweight post-menopausal women [11]. An Australian group of researchers found that 12 weeks of 150 mg of Teavigo, combined with a modest amount of walking, resulted in clear gains in blood pressure, heart rate, arterial function, and blood concentrations of lipids, glucose, and insulin. Remarkably, ECGC also seems to improve cognitive function; electroencephalogram monitoring of brain activity revealed boosts after as little as two hours following ingestion of 300 mg of ECGC, compared to placebo controls [12].


This little ion is well known to biochemists who realize its critical role in enzyme function and metabolism. And in recent years zinc supplementation has been often promoted as virtual shot-on-the-arm a to one’s immune system.

But zinc role in enhancing testosterone level is increasingly coming into view, although the connection was made more than 40 years ago. It was noticed in 1981 that zinc additions to the diet improved both sperm count and plasma testosterone levels [13]. And a 1996 study out of Wayne State University showed that zinc supplementation for six months gave a noticeable increase in serum testosterone levels in men who were otherwise healthy [14]. These days the evidence for a “zinc-link” to men’s health is clear; in a 2020 report the authors stated upfront that, “Zinc has important biological actions insofar as the male reproductive physiology and endocrine system” [15].


Another ion that is absolutely critical in biochemistry is magnesium. Even smaller than zinc, magnesium’s body wide influence extends from primary sugar metabolism to maintaining the proper shape and function of DNA and RNA.

Given its ubiquity in molecular processes, it is not a surprise that magnesium supplementation can help in many scenarios of hormone imbalance. A study done back in 2011 showed that 4 weeks of adding 10 mg per kilogram of body weight boosted the free plasma levels of testosterone in athletes [16]. And an Italian study done the same year [17] noticed a significant correlation between magnesium and testosterone levels in nearly 400 men whose mean age was 74. The bottom line? There is a body of evidence that reveals that, at least in men, magnesium exerts a positive influence on anabolic hormonal status, including testosterone [18].

Vitamin D

Once made in the body from nutrients you get from your diet and sunlight, Vitamin D circulates in the blood to regulate many physiological functions. Bone, skin, and teeth health are clearly linked to Vitamin D. But one of these functions seems to be testosterone synthesis. In 2010 a large clinical trial compared two groups of men, one that received vitamin D supplements, and one that only received a placebo. The treatment group experienced a highly significant increase (of about 30%) in testosterone after 6–12 months of vitamin D supplementation [19].

When the large number of studies that have focused on the connection between Vitamin D and testosterone were examined last year in 2021, the overall consensus seems to be that there is a slight, but positive relationship between the two [20]. Moreover, recently there appears to be evidence that vitamin D taken in conjunction with zinc offers additional benefits vis-à-vis testosterone production, although more research is needed on this issue.


  1. Ambiye VR, et al. (2013). Clinical evaluation of the spermatogenic activity of the root extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in oligospermic males: A pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013: 571420. doi: 10.1155/2013/571420.
  2. Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, & Smith SJ (2019). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study examining the hormonal and vitality effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in aging, overweight males. Am J Mens Health 13(2): 1557988319835985. doi: 10.1177/1557988319835985.
  3. Rao A, et al. (2016). Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum – graecum seed extract reduced age-related symptioms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study. Aging Male, 19(2): 134–142.
  4. Qureshi A, Naughton DP, & Petroczi A (2014). A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect. J Diet Suppl. 11(1): 64-79. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2014.887602.
  5. Kamenov Z, et al. (2017). Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Tribulus terrestris in male sexual dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas 99: 20–26. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.01.011.
  6. Ma Y, Guo Z, & Wang X (2017). Tribulus terrestris extracts alleviate muscle damage and promote anaerobic performance of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: Roles of androgen, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3. J Sport Health Sci. 6(4): 474–481. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.003.
  7. Chan KQ, et al. (2021). The effect of Eurycoma Longifolia on the regulation of reproductive hormones in young males. Andrologia 53(4): e14001. doi: 10.1111/and.14001.
  8. Henkel RR, et al. (2014). Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors: a pilot study. Phytother Res. 28(4): 544–550. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5017.
  9. Leitão AE, et al. (2021). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) and concurrent training on erectile function and testosterone levels in androgen deficiency of aging males (ADAM). Maturitas 145: 78–85.
  10. Kapoor MP, et al. (2017). Physiological effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on energy expenditure for prospective fat oxidation in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Biochem. 43: 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.10.013.
  11. Hill AM, et al. (2007). Can EGCG reduce abdominal fat in obese subjects? J Am Coll Nutr. 26(4): 396S-402S. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2007.10719628.
  12. 12. Scholey A, et al. (2012). Acute neurocognitive effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Appetite 58(2): 767–770. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2011.11.016.
  13. Netter A, Hartoma R, & Nahoul K (1981). Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. Arch Androl. 7(1): 69–73. doi: 10.3109/01485018109009378.
  14. Prasad AS, et al. (1996). Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition 12(5): 344-8. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(96)80058-x.
  15. Santos HO & Teixeira FJ (2020). Use of medicinal doses of zinc as a safe and efficient coadjutant in the treatment of male hypogonadism. Aging Male 23(5): 669–678. doi: 10.1080/13685538.2019.1573220.
  16. Cinar V, et al. (2011). Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biol Trace Elem Res. 140(1): 18–23. doi: 10.1007/s12011-010-8676-3.
  17. Maggio M, et al. (2011). Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men. Int J Androl. 34(6 Pt 2): e594-600. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01193.x.
  18. Maggio M, et al. (2014). The interplay between magnesium and testosterone in modulating physical function in men. Int J Endocrinol. 2014: 525249. doi: 10.1155/2014/525249.
  19. Pilz S, et al. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Hormone and Metabolism Research 43: 223–225.
  20. D'Andrea S, et al. (2021). Relationship of Vitamin D status with testosterone levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocrine 72(1): 49–61. doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02482-3.

🥇 Our Customers Love KANE™


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Based on 64 reviews
Review after 9 days

So far I haven’t experienced any benefits after using this product for nine days, could you tell me how long it usually takes to get any kind of results?

Oh boy.....we are going to reply in our no-filter style. No offense meant! We are just going to be direct.

First, for some reason some people come in with the perception it is a stimulant, ie you take KANE and suddenly feel like Hulk, sweaty ripped and ready to fight. The product is NOT a stimulant! You will not take it and instantly really feel anything! This is totally normal.

It is not realistic to expect any kind of significant change in 9 days, especially when it comes to your body needing to increase PRODUCTION of something (T is made in your gonads good sir!).

Let me put it this way, if you were taking full on Testosterone Replacement therapy - the synthetic testosterone that shuts your balls off and replaces your body's natural production - it would take about 3 months for your blood tests to hit your doctor-set goal. Unless using some kind of dangerous and insane pharma protocol, it would be near impossible, to completely overhaul your body's hormone profile in 9 days especially from food, supplements and lifestyle.

That's not to say something couldn't be noticed within 9 days, generally some people start feeling more relaxed and sleep better. Slowly, you should notice less high and low energy fluctuations throughout the day - you should have more balanced energy.

You will see from most previous reviews, and our subscribers (best way to take it and best deal $) that they have been taking it for 1-3+ months.

At 30 days in, you should have definitely have noticed some elements of change, especially with overall energy levels, recovery and maybe some sexual health benefits.

Keep at it young sir! If at 30 days, you still notice absolutely no difference whatsoever, not even a small change, than its likely not working for you.

At that point, you are welcome to be part of the <1 of our product returns group, as we offer a 60 day refund.


Wasn’t sure it was working, until…

I had been taking Kane for a few months, but wasn’t sure it was doing anything until I began working out again in September. I can absolutely attest that there’s no way without Kane that I’d have made the gains in muscle mass and loss of belly fat that I’ve seen in the past three months. My body is responding to strength training better than it did when I was 30. I feel sexier and have received compliments from strangers at the gym who’ve also noticed the difference. Thanks!

Chris you look amazing! Inspiration for all the boys here!!!! Great shirt pick too! We love the pattern!

Haven’t felt this way since college

After a month, I have definitely noticed more “get up and go” energy in my day. Nothing can easy fix everything in life, but KANE feels like a finger on the scale for my energy and libido.

Thank you so much for your review Sam!!! We really appreciate and hearing customer get results they are looking for makes us very happy :)

So far soo good

I’ve been taking Kane for about a month now… Once daily… Have noticed a difference in libido… and my muscles look fuller…

Great Test boosted!!

Got my butt up to finally get into the gym again!!!!

Excellent Supplement

This supplement works as advertised. I have more energy, I sleep better, and I have a greater sex drive. This is money well spent.

Thank you Kris! We really appreciate this, and nothing makes us more happy than hearing about your growth, happiness and success with the product!!!

Received it pretty fast despite the fact I'm not in USA, I started about one or two weeks ago and I feel motivated I don't know if this an effect of this product. My body hasn't changed that much but I def didn't loss muscle.

Hello Lucas! We are going to roast you a little bit lol.

Lucas.... you've been taking it for 'one or two weeks', your body most definitely didn't change much!!! lol 1 or 2 weeks? Common guy! Plus, this product won't change your body form, only you can do that!

Supporting natural testosterone WILL help you 'feel motivated', get more energy, stamina and strength. But it won't change your body, and you definitely need to put in more than 1-2 weeks!!!

Sounds like you are off to a rocket start though!

Really you need 3 months of continued use to see the biggest benefits. Keep at it! We hope the effect continue to grow and you achieve all your goals!

Maybe then you will relieve us of this 3 star shot . Love yah, keep at it!

Happened pretty quickly

I’m on month three and lemme tell you when I say it works quickly, it works quickly. Nothing too extreme but just enough to feel good about my progress. I felt real results by month one and I saw real results by month two. Super satisfied and excited to keep going.

Woooo what a review. We love it! First, so happy to hear this success and thank you so much for taking the time to come back and share the good word!

As we do mention, results stabilize but are most notable at 3 months. You should definitely notice changes well before that, but thats likely when the peak is hit and sustained for natural testosterone support.

Love it

Really works

Thank you! Short but sweet, and nothing makes us happier to hear than those magic words 'it works', which we hope translates to 'you're happy'. Thank you!

Kane Supplement

To be honest. I started taking it four days ago.At the present day I feel no difference. I will give it more time. Thank you for check-in with me. Dan

Thank you! Please note, we mean this with love, but YOU WILL NOT FEEL IT IMMEDIATELY, It takes 3 months to hit peak results. Generally 2 weeks in, you should feel some effects on mood, energy and stress, 6-12 weeks, the gains, motivation, strength and real results should start becoming apparent. Even TRT takes THREE MONTHS IN FOR OPTIMAL RESULTS - thinking this will work in a few days is beyond unrealistic! We want to be clear for everyone! (an this is NOT TRT, this is a natural supplement to support healthy levels of testosterone)

Keep at it young king! You will get there, trust the science, trust the word.

didn't help my Lobito

didn't help my Lobito

Hello Gary! It looks like you left the review after about 2 weeks of usage. You will need to give it more time and make sure you take it everyday and sleep well!

They work.

Calm mind, expected physical effects.

KANE™ - Natural Testosterone Enhancement Pills for Men

Kidneys didn't take to the supplements well.

I had to urinate constantly, every five minutes or so and my kidneys were hurting. Perhaps I have kidney issues I need to have checked out. That being said I did notice I had increased energy and felt very motivated to workout, if only I could without needing to stop to run to the toilet every 5 minutes.

Thank you for taking the time to write this review! PLEASE CHECK YOUR KIDNEYS!

We can't be sure of your age, but if over 40 like many of our customers, liver and kidney issues can become apparent. Any herbal extract will put some level of stress on the kidneys and liver. If they are healthy, you are totally fine. If there is an can just exacerbate it.

We do have a warning on the website and bottle, as its the responsible thing to do since many of our customers are men over 40.

Be well and get checked!!!!! Don't neglect bloodwork!

Steady Energy

I've been taking Kane for over a week now. My energy level seems to have stabilized- no more midday slump. I'm feeling sharp!

The bottle comes very well packaged and shipping time seems about average.

Little but noticable change

Placebo or not, these pills are working for me and give me motivation and energy in where my body and mind feel calm. I want to see how these will affect me after 2-3 months to really the see benefits but this product is amazing

So far!!!

I've noticed more energy and more stamina in the gym! Thank you Kane!

Don't know yet

KANE™ - Natural Testosterone Enhancement Pills for Men

Noticable improvement!

After a two-month cycle, I've noticed increased energy, muscle growth, and aerobic performance.

No changes yet

im on my second order and havent noticed any changes. Im interested in knowing how long most customers have waited to see any effectiveness.

Hello Thierry!

Late reply, but better than never. The truth is, nothing will work for everyone. It will be difficult to hone in since I don't know your age, current T levels etc.

If you are young, healthy and have STRONG T levels. They won't change this way. Maybe a tiny tiny tiny bit, but nothing substantial. There are other benefits however, like energy and muscle recovery the other ingredients offer.

KANE is best for those looking to naturally lift current non-optimal levels through the use of our dietary supplement. If you are prime, and/or pretty young, early 20's....its not going to do too much truth be told.

KANE™ - Natural Testosterone Enhancement Pills for Men

KANE™ - Natural Testosterone Enhancement Pills for Men

Test Results are In

Took Kane for 6 months. Test results are back and I am well above mid-range T levels. In addition my Estrogen is at the low end of Normal. I sleep better and my beard is coming in thicker, and I feel more confident and powerful. These work as intended and I am a customer for as long as this product is available.

Oh this is a glorious review - thank you sir! This makes us so happy to hear. We appreciate you coming back and throwing down the bloodwork proof. We put a lot of work, and risk, into making this product in an oversaturated (scammy) segment of the supplement market. Nothing is more rewarding than hearing the real world results and happy customers.

really helped me to get fitter

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.